The Defense Group

THE DEFENSE GROUP

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DRUG OFFENSES UNDER FLORIDA LAW

Chapter 893 of the Florida Statutes is one of the longest and most comprehensive chapter in all of the Florida Statutes. It controls the possession, manufacture, importation, use, sale and delivery of many substances, determined by the Legislature to be contraband. We will not attempt to provide here the many statutes in this Chapter, but will offer a few of the more common. 

PROHIBITED ACTS 
FSS 893.13 is one of the longest section in the Chapter and it comprehensively deals with the possession, sale, delivery, etc. of controlled substances. The entire statute is set out below, but the reader is cautioned that this is a complex statute and professional assistance should be obtained in interpreting it. 

893.13 Prohibited acts; penalties. 
(1)(a) Except as authorized by this chapter and chapter 499, it is unlawful for any person to sell, manufacture, or deliver, or possess with intent to sell, manufacture, or deliver, a controlled substance. Any person who violates this provision with respect to: 
1. A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(1)(a), (1)(b), (1)(d), (2)(a), (2)(b), or (2)(c)4., commits a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. 
2. A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(1)(c), (2)(c)1., (2)(c)2., (2)(c)3., (2)(c)5., (2)(c)6., (2)(c)7., (2)(c)8., (2)(c)9., (3), or (4) commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. 
3. A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(5) commits a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083. 
(b) Except as provided in this chapter, it is unlawful to sell or deliver in excess of 10 grams of any substance named or described in s. 893.03(1)(a) or (1)(b), or any combination thereof, or any mixture containing any such substance. Any person who violates this paragraph commits a felony of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. 
(c) Except as authorized by this chapter, it is unlawful for any person to sell, manufacture, or deliver, or possess with intent to sell, manufacture, or deliver, a controlled substance in, on, or within 1,000 feet of the real property comprising a child care facility as defined in s. 402.302 or a public or private elementary, middle, or secondary school between the hours of 6 a.m. and 12 midnight, or at any time in, on, or within 1,000 feet of real property comprising a state, county, or municipal park, a community center, or a publicly owned recreational facility. For the purposes of this paragraph, the term “community center” means a facility operated by a nonprofit community-based organization for the provision of recreational, social, or educational services to the public. Any person who violates this paragraph with respect to: 
1. A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(1)(a), (1)(b), (1)(d), (2)(a), (2)(b), or (2)(c)4., commits a felony of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. The defendant must be sentenced to a minimum term of imprisonment of 3 calendar years unless the offense was committed within 1,000 feet of the real property comprising a child care facility as defined in s. 402.302. 
2. A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(1)(c), (2)(c)1., (2)(c)2., (2)(c)3., (2)(c)5., (2)(c)6., (2)(c)7., (2)(c)8., (2)(c)9., (3), or (4) commits a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. 
3. Any other controlled substance, except as lawfully sold, manufactured, or delivered, must be sentenced to pay a $500 fine and to serve 100 hours of public service in addition to any other penalty prescribed by law. 
This paragraph does not apply to a child care facility unless the owner or operator of the facility posts a sign that is not less than 2 square feet in size with a word legend identifying the facility as a licensed child care facility and that is posted on the property of the child care facility in a conspicuous place where the sign is reasonably visible to the public. 
(d) Except as authorized by this chapter, it is unlawful for any person to sell, manufacture, or deliver, or possess with intent to sell, manufacture, or deliver, a controlled substance in, on, or within 1,000 feet of the real property comprising a public or private college, university, or other postsecondary educational institution. Any person who violates this paragraph with respect to: 
1. A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(1)(a), (1)(b), (1)(d), (2)(a), (2)(b), or (2)(c)4., commits a felony of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. 
2. A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(1)(c), (2)(c)1., (2)(c)2., (2)(c)3., (2)(c)5., (2)(c)6., (2)(c)7., (2)(c)8., (2)(c)9., (3), or (4) commits a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. 
3. Any other controlled substance, except as lawfully sold, manufactured, or delivered, must be sentenced to pay a $500 fine and to serve 100 hours of public service in addition to any other penalty prescribed by law. 
(e) Except as authorized by this chapter, it is unlawful for any person to sell, manufacture, or deliver, or possess with intent to sell, manufacture, or deliver, a controlled substance not authorized by law in, on, or within 1,000 feet of a physical place for worship at which a church or religious organization regularly conducts religious services or within 1,000 feet of a convenience business as defined in s. 812.171. Any person who violates this paragraph with respect to: 
1. A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(1)(a), (1)(b), (1)(d), (2)(a), (2)(b), or (2)(c)4., commits a felony of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. 
2. A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(1)(c), (2)(c)1., (2)(c)2., (2)(c)3., (2)(c)5., (2)(c)6., (2)(c)7., (2)(c)8., (2)(c)9., (3), or (4) commits a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. 
3. Any other controlled substance, except as lawfully sold, manufactured, or delivered, must be sentenced to pay a $500 fine and to serve 100 hours of public service in addition to any other penalty prescribed by law. 
(f) Except as authorized by this chapter, it is unlawful for any person to sell, manufacture, or deliver, or possess with intent to sell, manufacture, or deliver, a controlled substance in, on, or within 1,000 feet of the real property comprising a public housing facility at any time. For purposes of this section, the term “real property comprising a public housing facility” means real property, as defined in s. 421.03(12), of a public corporation created as a housing authority pursuant to part I of chapter 421. Any person who violates this paragraph with respect to: 
1. A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(1)(a), (1)(b), (1)(d), (2)(a), (2)(b), or (2)(c)4., commits a felony of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. 
2. A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(1)(c), (2)(c)1., (2)(c)2., (2)(c)3., (2)(c)5., (2)(c)6., (2)(c)7., (2)(c)8., (2)(c)9., (3), or (4) commits a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. 
3. Any other controlled substance, except as lawfully sold, manufactured, or delivered, must be sentenced to pay a $500 fine and to serve 100 hours of public service in addition to any other penalty prescribed by law. 

(2)(a) Except as authorized by this chapter and chapter 499, it is unlawful for any person to purchase, or possess with intent to purchase, a controlled substance. Any person who violates this provision with respect to: 
1. A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(1)(a), (1)(b), (1)(d), (2)(a), (2)(b), or (2)(c)4., commits a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. 
2. A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(1)(c), (2)(c)1., (2)(c)2., (2)(c)3., (2)(c)5., (2)(c)6., (2)(c)7., (2)(c)8., (2)(c)9., (3), or (4) commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. 
3. A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(5) commits a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083. 
(b) Except as provided in this chapter, it is unlawful to purchase in excess of 10 grams of any substance named or described in s. 893.03(1)(a) or (1)(b), or any combination thereof, or any mixture containing any such substance. Any person who violates this paragraph commits a felony of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. 

(3) Any person who delivers, without consideration, not more than 20 grams of cannabis, as defined in this chapter, commits a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083. For the purposes of this paragraph, “cannabis” does not include the resin extracted from the plants of the genus Cannabis or any compound manufacture, salt, derivative, mixture, or preparation of such resin. 

(4) Except as authorized by this chapter, it is unlawful for any person 18 years of age or older to deliver any controlled substance to a person under the age of 18 years, or to use or hire a person under the age of 18 years as an agent or employee in the sale or delivery of such a substance, or to use such person to assist in avoiding detection or apprehension for a violation of this chapter. Any person who violates this provision with respect to: 
(a) A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(1)(a), (1)(b), (1)(d), (2)(a), (2)(b), or (2)(c)4., commits a felony of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. 
(b) A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(1)(c), (2)(c)1., (2)(c)2., (2)(c)3., (2)(c)5., (2)(c)6., (2)(c)7., (2)(c)8., (2)(c)9., (3), or (4) commits a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. 
Imposition of sentence may not be suspended or deferred, nor shall the person so convicted be placed on probation. 

(5) It is unlawful for any person to bring into this state any controlled substance unless the possession of such controlled substance is authorized by this chapter or unless such person is licensed to do so by the appropriate federal agency. Any person who violates this provision with respect to: 
(a) A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(1)(a), (1)(b), (1)(d), (2)(a), (2)(b), or (2)(c)4., commits a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. 
(b) A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(1)(c), (2)(c)1., (2)(c)2., (2)(c)3., (2)(c)5., (2)(c)6., (2)(c)7., (2)(c)8., (2)(c)9., (3), or (4) commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. 
(c) A controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(5) commits a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083. 

(6)(a) It is unlawful for any person to be in actual or constructive possession of a controlled substance unless such controlled substance was lawfully obtained from a practitioner or pursuant to a valid prescription or order of a practitioner while acting in the course of his or her professional practice or to be in actual or constructive possession of a controlled substance except as otherwise authorized by this chapter. Any person who violates this provision commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. 
(b) If the offense is the possession of not more than 20 grams of cannabis, as defined in this chapter, the person commits a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083. For the purposes of this subsection, “cannabis” does not include the resin extracted from the plants of the genus Cannabis, or any compound manufacture, salt, derivative, mixture, or preparation of such resin. 
(c) Except as provided in this chapter, it is unlawful to possess in excess of 10 grams of any substance named or described in s. 893.03(1)(a) or (1)(b), or any combination thereof, or any mixture containing any such substance. Any person who violates this paragraph commits a felony of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. 
(d) Notwithstanding any provision to the contrary of the laws of this state relating to arrest, a law enforcement officer may arrest without warrant any person who the officer has probable cause to believe is violating the provisions of this chapter relating to possession of cannabis. 
(7)(a) It is unlawful for any person: 

1. To distribute or dispense a controlled substance in violation of this chapter. 
2. To refuse or fail to make, keep, or furnish any record, notification, order form, statement, invoice, or information required under this chapter. 
3. To refuse an entry into any premises for any inspection or to refuse to allow any inspection authorized by this chapter. 
4. To distribute a controlled substance named or described in s. 893.03(1) or (2) except pursuant to an order form as required by s. 893.06. 
5. To keep or maintain any store, shop, warehouse, dwelling, building, vehicle, boat, aircraft, or other structure or place which is resorted to by persons using controlled substances in violation of this chapter for the purpose of using these substances, or which is used for keeping or selling them in violation of this chapter. 
6. To use to his or her own personal advantage, or to reveal, any information obtained in enforcement of this chapter except in a prosecution or administrative hearing for a violation of this chapter. 
7. To possess a prescription form which has not been completed and signed by the practitioner whose name appears printed thereon, unless the person is that practitioner, is an agent or employee of that practitioner, is a pharmacist, or is a supplier of prescription forms who is authorized by that practitioner to possess those forms. 
8. To withhold information from a practitioner from whom the person seeks to obtain a controlled substance or a prescription for a controlled substance that the person making the request has received a controlled substance or a prescription for a controlled substance of like therapeutic use from another practitioner within the previous 30 days. 
9. To acquire or obtain, or attempt to acquire or obtain, possession of a controlled substance by misrepresentation, fraud, forgery, deception, or subterfuge. 
10. To affix any false or forged label to a package or receptacle containing a controlled substance. 
11. To furnish false or fraudulent material information in, or omit any material information from, any report or other document required to be kept or filed under this chapter or any record required to be kept by this chapter. 
(b) Any person who violates the provisions of subparagraphs (a)1.-7. commits a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083; except that, upon a second or subsequent violation, the person commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. 
 
(c) Any person who violates the provisions of subparagraphs (a)8.-11. commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. 
 
(8)(a) Notwithstanding subsection (9), a prescribing practitioner may not: 
1. Knowingly assist a patient, other person, or the owner of an animal in obtaining a controlled substance through deceptive, untrue, or fraudulent representations in or related to the practice of the prescribing practitioner’s professional practice; 
2. Employ a trick or scheme in the practice of the prescribing practitioner’s professional practice to assist a patient, other person, or the owner of an animal in obtaining a controlled substance; 
3. Knowingly write a prescription for a controlled substance for a fictitious person; or 
4. Write a prescription for a controlled substance for a patient, other person, or an animal if the sole purpose of writing such prescription is to provide a monetary benefit to, or obtain a monetary benefit for, the prescribing practitioner. 
(b) If the prescribing practitioner wrote a prescription or multiple prescriptions for a controlled substance for the patient, other person, or animal for which there was no medical necessity, or which was in excess of what was medically necessary to treat the patient, other person, or animal, that fact does not give rise to any presumption that the prescribing practitioner violated subparagraph (a)1., but may be considered with other competent evidence in determining whether the prescribing practitioner knowingly assisted a patient, other person, or the owner of an animal to obtain a controlled substance in violation of subparagraph (a)1. 
(c) A person who violates paragraph (a) commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. 
(d) Notwithstanding paragraph (c), if a prescribing practitioner has violated paragraph (a) and received $1,000 or more in payment for writing one or more prescriptions or, in the case of a prescription written for a controlled substance described in s. 893.135, has written one or more prescriptions for a quantity of a controlled substance which, individually or in the aggregate, meets the threshold for the offense of trafficking in a controlled substance under s. 893.15, the violation is reclassified as a felony of the second degree and ranked in level 4 of the Criminal Punishment Code. 

(9) The provisions of subsections (1)-(8) are not applicable to the delivery to, or actual or constructive possession for medical or scientific use or purpose only of controlled substances by, persons included in any of the following classes, or the agents or employees of such persons, for use in the usual course of their business or profession or in the performance of their official duties: 
(a) Pharmacists. 
(b) Practitioners. 
(c) Persons who procure controlled substances in good faith and in the course of professional practice only, by or under the supervision of pharmacists or practitioners employed by them, or for the purpose of lawful research, teaching, or testing, and not for resale. 
(d) Hospitals that procure controlled substances for lawful administration by practitioners, but only for use by or in the particular hospital. 
(e) Officers or employees of state, federal, or local governments acting in their official capacity only, or informers acting under their jurisdiction. 
(f) Common carriers. 
(g) Manufacturers, wholesalers, and distributors. 
(h) Law enforcement officers for bona fide law enforcement purposes in the course of an active criminal investigation. 

(10) Notwithstanding any provision of the sentencing guidelines or the Criminal Punishment Code to the contrary, on or after October 1, 1993, any defendant who: 
(a) Violates subparagraph (1)(a)1., subparagraph (1)(c)2., subparagraph (1)(d)2., subparagraph (2)(a)1., or paragraph (5)(a); and 
(b) Has not previously been convicted, regardless of whether adjudication was withheld, of any felony, other than a violation of subparagraph (1)(a)1., subparagraph (1)(c)2., subparagraph (1)(d)2., subparagraph (2)(a)1., or paragraph (5)(a), may be required by the court to successfully complete a term of probation pursuant to the terms and conditions set forth in s. 948.034(1), in lieu of serving a term of imprisonment. 
(11) Notwithstanding any provision of the sentencing guidelines or the Criminal Punishment Code to the contrary, on or after January 1, 1994, any defendant who: 
(a) Violates subparagraph (1)(a)2., subparagraph (2)(a)2., paragraph (5)(b), or paragraph (6)(a); and 
(b) Has not previously been convicted, regardless of whether adjudication was withheld, of any felony, other than a violation of subparagraph (1)(a)2., subparagraph (2)(a)2., paragraph (5)(b), or paragraph (6)(a), may be required by the court to successfully complete a term of probation pursuant to the terms and conditions set forth in s. 948.034(2), in lieu of serving a term of imprisonment. 

DRUG TRAFFICKING 
The offense of “trafficking” in drugs is widely misunderstood. It does not require that you be part of some organized or sophisticated drug importation or distribution operation. The determination of whether you are to be charged with “trafficking” is almost entirely dependent upon the quantity of drugs involved in the offense. The quantity varies with the specific drug involved and as the quantity increases, so does the penalty scheme. FSS 893.135 lays out the complicated and Draconian penalties for drug trafficking. The most important feature is that “trafficking” calls for minimum mandatory prison sentences ranging from three (3) years to life imprisonment. The stature is set out below: 

893.135 Trafficking; mandatory sentences; suspension or reduction of sentences; conspiracy to engage in trafficking. 
(1) Except as authorized in this chapter or in chapter 499 and notwithstanding the provisions of s. 893.13: 
(a) Any person who knowingly sells, purchases, manufactures, delivers, or brings into this state, or who is knowingly in actual or constructive possession of, in excess of 25 pounds of cannabis, or 300 or more cannabis plants, commits a felony of the first degree, which felony shall be known as “trafficking in cannabis,” punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. If the quantity of cannabis involved: 
1. Is in excess of 25 pounds, but less than 2,000 pounds, or is 300 or more cannabis plants, but not more than 2,000 cannabis plants, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 3 years, and the defendant shall be ordered to pay a fine of $25,000. 
2. Is 2,000 pounds or more, but less than 10,000 pounds, or is 2,000 or more cannabis plants, but not more than 10,000 cannabis plants, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 7 years, and the defendant shall be ordered to pay a fine of $50,000. 
3. Is 10,000 pounds or more, or is 10,000 or more cannabis plants, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 15 calendar years and pay a fine of $200,000. 
For the purpose of this paragraph, a plant, including, but not limited to, a seedling or cutting, is a “cannabis plant” if it has some readily observable evidence of root formation, such as root hairs. To determine if a piece or part of a cannabis plant severed from the cannabis plant is itself a cannabis plant, the severed piece or part must have some readily observable evidence of root formation, such as root hairs. Callous tissue is not readily observable evidence of root formation. The viability and sex of a plant and the fact that the plant may or may not be a dead harvested plant are not relevant in determining if the plant is a “cannabis plant” or in the charging of an offense under this paragraph. Upon conviction, the court shall impose the longest term of imprisonment provided for in this paragraph. 
(b)1. Any person who knowingly sells, purchases, manufactures, delivers, or brings into this state, or who is knowingly in actual or constructive possession of, 28 grams or more of cocaine, as described in s. 893.03(2)(a)4., or of any mixture containing cocaine, but less than 150 kilograms of cocaine or any such mixture, commits a felony of the first degree, which felony shall be known as “trafficking in cocaine,” punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. If the quantity involved: 
a. Is 28 grams or more, but less than 200 grams, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 3 years, and the defendant shall be ordered to pay a fine of $50,000. 
b. Is 200 grams or more, but less than 400 grams, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 7 years, and the defendant shall be ordered to pay a fine of $100,000. 
c. Is 400 grams or more, but less than 150 kilograms, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 15 calendar years and pay a fine of $250,000. 
2. Any person who knowingly sells, purchases, manufactures, delivers, or brings into this state, or who is knowingly in actual or constructive possession of, 150 kilograms or more of cocaine, as described in s. 893.03(2)(a)4., commits the first degree felony of trafficking in cocaine. A person who has been convicted of the first degree felony of trafficking in cocaine under this subparagraph shall be punished by life imprisonment and is ineligible for any form of discretionary early release except pardon or executive clemency or conditional medical release under s. 947.149. However, if the court determines that, in addition to committing any act specified in this paragraph: 
a. The person intentionally killed an individual or counseled, commanded, induced, procured, or caused the intentional killing of an individual and such killing was the result; or 
b. The person’s conduct in committing that act led to a natural, though not inevitable, lethal result, such person commits the capital felony of trafficking in cocaine, punishable as provided in ss. 775.082 and 921.142. Any person sentenced for a capital felony under this paragraph shall also be sentenced to pay the maximum fine provided under subparagraph 1. 
3. Any person who knowingly brings into this state 300 kilograms or more of cocaine, as described in s. 893.03(2)(a)4., and who knows that the probable result of such importation would be the death of any person, commits capital importation of cocaine, a capital felony punishable as provided in ss. 775.082 and 921.142. Any person sentenced for a capital felony under this paragraph shall also be sentenced to pay the maximum fine provided under subparagraph 1. 
(c)1. Any person who knowingly sells, purchases, manufactures, delivers, or brings into this state, or who is knowingly in actual or constructive possession of, 4 grams or more of any morphine, opium, oxycodone, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, or any salt, derivative, isomer, or salt of an isomer thereof, including heroin, as described in s. 893.03(1)(b), (2)(a), (3)(c)3., or (3)(c)4., or 4 grams or more of any mixture containing any such substance, but less than 30 kilograms of such substance or mixture, commits a felony of the first degree, which felony shall be known as “trafficking in illegal drugs,” punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. If the quantity involved: 
a. Is 4 grams or more, but less than 14 grams, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 3 years, and the defendant shall be ordered to pay a fine of $50,000. 
b. Is 14 grams or more, but less than 28 grams, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 15 years, and the defendant shall be ordered to pay a fine of $100,000. 
c. Is 28 grams or more, but less than 30 kilograms, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 25 calendar years and pay a fine of $500,000. 
2. Any person who knowingly sells, purchases, manufactures, delivers, or brings into this state, or who is knowingly in actual or constructive possession of, 30 kilograms or more of any morphine, opium, oxycodone, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, or any salt, derivative, isomer, or salt of an isomer thereof, including heroin, as described in s. 893.03(1)(b), (2)(a), (3)(c)3., or (3)(c)4., or 30 kilograms or more of any mixture containing any such substance, commits the first degree felony of trafficking in illegal drugs. A person who has been convicted of the first degree felony of trafficking in illegal drugs under this subparagraph shall be punished by life imprisonment and is ineligible for any form of discretionary early release except pardon or executive clemency or conditional medical release under s. 947.149. However, if the court determines that, in addition to committing any act specified in this paragraph: 
a. The person intentionally killed an individual or counseled, commanded, induced, procured, or caused the intentional killing of an individual and such killing was the result; or 
b. The person’s conduct in committing that act led to a natural, though not inevitable, lethal result, such person commits the capital felony of trafficking in illegal drugs, punishable as provided in ss. 775.082 and 921.142. Any person sentenced for a capital felony under this paragraph shall also be sentenced to pay the maximum fine provided under subparagraph 1. 
3. Any person who knowingly brings into this state 60 kilograms or more of any morphine, opium, oxycodone, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, or any salt, derivative, isomer, or salt of an isomer thereof, including heroin, as described in s. 893.03(1)(b), (2)(a), (3)(c)3., or (3)(c)4., or 60 kilograms or more of any mixture containing any such substance, and who knows that the probable result of such importation would be the death of any person, commits capital importation of illegal drugs, a capital felony punishable as provided in ss. 775.082 and 921.142. Any person sentenced for a capital felony under this paragraph shall also be sentenced to pay the maximum fine provided under subparagraph 1. 
 
(d)1. Any person who knowingly sells, purchases, manufactures, delivers, or brings into this state, or who is knowingly in actual or constructive possession of, 28 grams or more of phencyclidine or of any mixture containing phencyclidine, as described in s. 893.03(2)(b), commits a felony of the first degree, which felony shall be known as “trafficking in phencyclidine,” punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. If the quantity involved: 
a. Is 28 grams or more, but less than 200 grams, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 3 years, and the defendant shall be ordered to pay a fine of $50,000. 
b. Is 200 grams or more, but less than 400 grams, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 7 years, and the defendant shall be ordered to pay a fine of $100,000. 
c. Is 400 grams or more, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 15 calendar years and pay a fine of $250,000. 
2. Any person who knowingly brings into this state 800 grams or more of phencyclidine or of any mixture containing phencyclidine, as described in s. 893.03(2)(b), and who knows that the probable result of such importation would be the death of any person commits capital importation of phencyclidine, a capital felony punishable as provided in ss. 775.082 and 921.142. Any person sentenced for a capital felony under this paragraph shall also be sentenced to pay the maximum fine provided under subparagraph 1. 
(e)1. Any person who knowingly sells, purchases, manufactures, delivers, or brings into this state, or who is knowingly in actual or constructive possession of, 200 grams or more of methaqualone or of any mixture containing methaqualone, as described in s. 893.03(1)(d), commits a felony of the first degree, which felony shall be known as “trafficking in methaqualone,” punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. If the quantity involved: 
a. Is 200 grams or more, but less than 5 kilograms, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 3 years, and the defendant shall be ordered to pay a fine of $50,000. 
b. Is 5 kilograms or more, but less than 25 kilograms, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 7 years, and the defendant shall be ordered to pay a fine of $100,000. 
c. Is 25 kilograms or more, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 15 calendar years and pay a fine of $250,000. 
2. Any person who knowingly brings into this state 50 kilograms or more of methaqualone or of any mixture containing methaqualone, as described in s. 893.03(1)(d), and who knows that the probable result of such importation would be the death of any person commits capital importation of methaqualone, a capital felony punishable as provided in ss. 775.082 and 921.142. Any person sentenced for a capital felony under this paragraph shall also be sentenced to pay the maximum fine provided under subparagraph 1. 
(f)1. Any person who knowingly sells, purchases, manufactures, delivers, or brings into this state, or who is knowingly in actual or constructive possession of, 14 grams or more of amphetamine, as described in s. 893.03(2)(c)2., or methamphetamine, as described in s. 893.03(2)(c)4., or of any mixture containing amphetamine or methamphetamine, or phenylacetone, phenylacetic acid, or ephedrine in conjunction with other chemicals and equipment utilized in the manufacture of amphetamine or methamphetamine, commits a felony of the first degree, which felony shall be known as “trafficking in amphetamine,” punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. If the quantity involved: 
a. Is 14 grams or more, but less than 28 grams, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 3 years, and the defendant shall be ordered to pay a fine of $50,000. 
b. Is 28 grams or more, but less than 200 grams, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 7 years, and the defendant shall be ordered to pay a fine of $100,000. 
c. Is 200 grams or more, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 15 calendar years and pay a fine of $250,000. 
2. Any person who knowingly manufactures or brings into this state 400 grams or more of amphetamine, as described in s. 893.03(2)(c)2., or methamphetamine, as described in s. 893.03(2)(c)4., or of any mixture containing amphetamine or methamphetamine, or phenylacetone, phenylacetic acid, or ephedrine in conjunction with other chemicals and equipment used in the manufacture of amphetamine or methamphetamine, and who knows that the probable result of such manufacture or importation would be the death of any person commits capital manufacture or importation of amphetamine, a capital felony punishable as provided in ss. 775.082 and 921.142. Any person sentenced for a capital felony under this paragraph shall also be sentenced to pay the maximum fine provided under subparagraph 1. 
(g)1. Any person who knowingly sells, purchases, manufactures, delivers, or brings into this state, or who is knowingly in actual or constructive possession of, 4 grams or more of flunitrazepam or any mixture containing flunitrazepam as described in s. 893.03(1)(a) commits a felony of the first degree, which felony shall be known as “trafficking in flunitrazepam,” punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. If the quantity involved: 
a. Is 4 grams or more but less than 14 grams, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 3 years, and the defendant shall be ordered to pay a fine of $50,000. 
b. Is 14 grams or more but less than 28 grams, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 7 years, and the defendant shall be ordered to pay a fine of $100,000. 
c. Is 28 grams or more but less than 30 kilograms, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 25 calendar years and pay a fine of $500,000. 
2. Any person who knowingly sells, purchases, manufactures, delivers, or brings into this state or who is knowingly in actual or constructive possession of 30 kilograms or more of flunitrazepam or any mixture containing flunitrazepam as described in s. 893.03(1)(a) commits the first degree felony of trafficking in flunitrazepam. A person who has been convicted of the first degree felony of trafficking in flunitrazepam under this subparagraph shall be punished by life imprisonment and is ineligible for any form of discretionary early release except pardon or executive clemency or conditional medical release under s. 947.149. However, if the court determines that, in addition to committing any act specified in this paragraph: 
a. The person intentionally killed an individual or counseled, commanded, induced, procured, or caused the intentional killing of an individual and such killing was the result; or 
b. The person’s conduct in committing that act led to a natural, though not inevitable, lethal result, such person commits the capital felony of trafficking in flunitrazepam, punishable as provided in ss. 775.082 and 921.142. Any person sentenced for a capital felony under this paragraph shall also be sentenced to pay the maximum fine provided under subparagraph 1. 
(h)1. Any person who knowingly sells, purchases, manufactures, delivers, or brings into this state, or who is knowingly in actual or constructive possession of, 1 kilogram or more of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), as described in s. 893.03(1)(d), or any mixture containing gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), commits a felony of the first degree, which felony shall be known as “trafficking in gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB),” punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. If the quantity involved: 
a. Is 1 kilogram or more but less than 5 kilograms, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 3 years, and the defendant shall be ordered to pay a fine of $50,000. 
b. Is 5 kilograms or more but less than 10 kilograms, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 7 years, and the defendant shall be ordered to pay a fine of $100,000. 
c. Is 10 kilograms or more, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 15 calendar years and pay a fine of $250,000. 
2. Any person who knowingly manufactures or brings into this state 150 kilograms or more of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), as described in s. 893.03(1)(d), or any mixture containing gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), and who knows that the probable result of such manufacture or importation would be the death of any person commits capital manufacture or importation of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), a capital felony punishable as provided in ss. 775.082 and 921.142. Any person sentenced for a capital felony under this paragraph shall also be sentenced to pay the maximum fine provided under subparagraph 1. 
(i)1. Any person who knowingly sells, purchases, manufactures, delivers, or brings into this state, or who is knowingly in actual or constructive possession of, 1 kilogram or more of gamma-butyrolactone (GBL), as described in s. 893.03(1)(d), or any mixture containing gamma-butyrolactone (GBL), commits a felony of the first degree, which felony shall be known as “trafficking in gamma-butyrolactone (GBL),” punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. If the quantity involved: 
a. Is 1 kilogram or more but less than 5 kilograms, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 3 years, and the defendant shall be ordered to pay a fine of $50,000. 
b. Is 5 kilograms or more but less than 10 kilograms, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 7 years, and the defendant shall be ordered to pay a fine of $100,000. 
c. Is 10 kilograms or more, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 15 calendar years and pay a fine of $250,000. 
2. Any person who knowingly manufactures or brings into the state 150 kilograms or more of gamma-butyrolactone (GBL), as described in s. 893.03(1)(d), or any mixture containing gamma-butyrolactone (GBL), and who knows that the probable result of such manufacture or importation would be the death of any person commits capital manufacture or importation of gamma-butyrolactone (GBL), a capital felony punishable as provided in ss. 775.082 and 921.142. Any person sentenced for a capital felony under this paragraph shall also be sentenced to pay the maximum fine provided under subparagraph 1. 
(j)1. Any person who knowingly sells, purchases, manufactures, delivers, or brings into this state, or who is knowingly in actual or constructive possession of, 1 kilogram or more of 1,4-Butanediol as described in s. 893.03(1)(d), or of any mixture containing 1,4-Butanediol, commits a felony of the first degree, which felony shall be known as “trafficking in 1,4-Butanediol,” punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. If the quantity involved: 
a. Is 1 kilogram or more, but less than 5 kilograms, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 3 years, and the defendant shall be ordered to pay a fine of $50,000. 
b. Is 5 kilograms or more, but less than 10 kilograms, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 7 years, and the defendant shall be ordered to pay a fine of $100,000. 
c. Is 10 kilograms or more, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 15 calendar years and pay a fine of $500,000. 
2. Any person who knowingly manufactures or brings into this state 150 kilograms or more of 1,4-Butanediol as described in s. 893.03(1)(d), or any mixture containing 1,4-Butanediol, and who knows that the probable result of such manufacture or importation would be the death of any person commits capital manufacture or importation of 1,4-Butanediol, a capital felony punishable as provided in ss. 775.082 and 921.142. Any person sentenced for a capital felony under this paragraph shall also be sentenced to pay the maximum fine provided under subparagraph 1. 
(k)1. Any person who knowingly sells, purchases, manufactures, delivers, or brings into this state, or who is knowingly in actual or constructive possession of, 10 grams or more of any of the following substances described in s. 893.03(1)(a) or (c): 
a. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA); 
b. 4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine; 
c. 4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine; 
d. 2,5-Dimethoxyamphetamine; 
e. 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamine (DOET); 
f. N-ethylamphetamine; 
g. N-Hydroxy-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine; 
h. 5-Methoxy-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine; 
i. 4-methoxyamphetamine; 
j. 4-methoxymethamphetamine; 
k. 4-Methyl-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine; 
l. 3,4-Methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine; 
m. 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine; 
n. N,N-dimethylamphetamine; or 
o. 3,4,5-Trimethoxyamphetamine, 
individually or in any combination of or any mixture containing any substance listed in sub-subparagraphs a.-o., commits a felony of the first degree, which felony shall be known as “trafficking in Phenethylamines,” punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. 
 
2. If the quantity involved: 
a. Is 10 grams or more but less than 200 grams, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 3 years, and the defendant shall be ordered to pay a fine of $50,000. 
b. Is 200 grams or more, but less than 400 grams, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 7 years, and the defendant shall be ordered to pay a fine of $100,000. 
c. Is 400 grams or more, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 15 calendar years and pay a fine of $250,000. 
3. Any person who knowingly manufactures or brings into this state 30 kilograms or more of any of the following substances described in s. 893.03(1)(a) or (c): 
a. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA); 
b. 4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine; 
c. 4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine; 
d. 2,5-Dimethoxyamphetamine; 
e. 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamine (DOET); 
f. N-ethylamphetamine; 
g. N-Hydroxy-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine; 
h. 5-Methoxy-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine; 
i. 4-methoxyamphetamine; 
j. 4-methoxymethamphetamine; 
k. 4-Methyl-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine; 
l. 3,4-Methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine; 
m. 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine; 
n. N,N-dimethylamphetamine; or 
o. 3,4,5-Trimethoxyamphetamine, 
individually or in any combination of or any mixture containing any substance listed in sub-subparagraphs a.-o., and who knows that the probable result of such manufacture or importation would be the death of any person commits capital manufacture or importation of Phenethylamines, a capital felony punishable as provided in ss. 775.082 and 921.142. Any person sentenced for a capital felony under this paragraph shall also be sentenced to pay the maximum fine provided under subparagraph 1. 
 
(l)1. Any person who knowingly sells, purchases, manufactures, delivers, or brings into this state, or who is knowingly in actual or constructive possession of, 1 gram or more of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) as described in s. 893.03(1)(c), or of any mixture containing lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), commits a felony of the first degree, which felony shall be known as “trafficking in lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD),” punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. If the quantity involved: 
a. Is 1 gram or more, but less than 5 grams, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 3 years, and the defendant shall be ordered to pay a fine of $50,000. 
b. Is 5 grams or more, but less than 7 grams, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 7 years, and the defendant shall be ordered to pay a fine of $100,000. 
c. Is 7 grams or more, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 15 calendar years and pay a fine of $500,000. 
2. Any person who knowingly manufactures or brings into this state 7 grams or more of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) as described in s. 893.03(1)(c), or any mixture containing lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), and who knows that the probable result of such manufacture or importation would be the death of any person commits capital manufacture or importation of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), a capital felony punishable as provided in ss. 775.082 and 921.142. Any person sentenced for a capital felony under this paragraph shall also be sentenced to pay the maximum fine provided under subparagraph 1. 

(2) A person acts knowingly under subsection (1) if that person intends to sell, purchase, manufacture, deliver, or bring into this state, or to actually or constructively possess, any of the controlled substances listed in subsection (1), regardless of which controlled substance listed in subsection (1) is in fact sold, purchased, manufactured, delivered, or brought into this state, or actually or constructively possessed. 
 
(3) Notwithstanding the provisions of s. 948.01, with respect to any person who is found to have violated this section, adjudication of guilt or imposition of sentence shall not be suspended, deferred, or withheld, nor shall such person be eligible for parole prior to serving the mandatory minimum term of imprisonment prescribed by this section. A person sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment under this section is not eligible for any form of discretionary early release, except pardon or executive clemency or conditional medical release under s. 947.149, prior to serving the mandatory minimum term of imprisonment. 

(4) The state attorney may move the sentencing court to reduce or suspend the sentence of any person who is convicted of a violation of this section and who provides substantial assistance in the identification, arrest, or conviction of any of that person’s accomplices, accessories, coconspirators, or principals or of any other person engaged in trafficking in controlled substances. The arresting agency shall be given an opportunity to be heard in aggravation or mitigation in reference to any such motion. Upon good cause shown, the motion may be filed and heard in camera. The judge hearing the motion may reduce or suspend the sentence if the judge finds that the defendant rendered such substantial assistance. 

(5) Any person who agrees, conspires, combines, or confederates with another person to commit any act prohibited by subsection (1) commits a felony of the first degree and is punishable as if he or she had actually committed such prohibited act. Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to prohibit separate convictions and sentences for a violation of this subsection and any violation of subsection (1). 

(6) A mixture, as defined in s. 893.02(14), containing any controlled substance described in this section includes, but is not limited to, a solution or a dosage unit, including but not limited to, a pill or tablet, containing a controlled substance. For the purpose of clarifying legislative intent regarding the weighing of a mixture containing a controlled substance described in this section, the weight of the controlled substance is the total weight of the mixture, including the controlled substance and any other substance in the mixture. If there is more than one mixture containing the same controlled substance, the weight of the controlled substance is calculated by aggregating the total weight of each mixture. 

(7) For the purpose of further clarifying legislative intent, the Legislature finds that the opinion in Hayes v. State, 750 So. 2d 1 (Fla. 1999) does not correctly construe legislative intent. The Legislature finds that the opinions in State v. Hayes, 720 So. 2d 1095 (Fla. 4th DCA 1998) and State v. Baxley, 684 So. 2d 831 (Fla. 5th DCA 1996) correctly construe legislative intent. 

***NOTE: Florida statutes are constantly chaining. The statutes posted here are intended to provide general information. They are not intended to be a substitute for professional legal advice. The most current version of a statute is always available online. 

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